On Urinating and Defecating
It is required that everyone, when urinating or defecating, hide his sexual parts from all pubescent persons, even his sister or his mother, as well as from any feebleminded person or children too young to understand. But husband and wife are not required to hide from each other.
It is not indispensable to hide one's genitals with anything in particular; one's hand is enough.
When defecating or urinating, one must squat in such a way as neither to face Mecca nor turn one's back upon it.
It is not sufficient to turn one's sex organ away, while oneself facing or turning one's back on Mecca; and one's privates must never be exposed either facing Mecca or facing directly away from Mecca.
Urinating and defecating are forbidden in four places: blind alleys, except with the permission of those living along them; the property of a person who has not given permission to do so; places of worship, such as a certain medersas [Arabic schools]; graves of believers, unless one does so as an insult to them.
In three cases, it is absolutely necessary to purify one's anus with water: when the excrement has been expelled with other impurities, such as blood, for example; when some impure thing has grazed the anus; when the anal opening has been soiled more than usual.
Apart from these three cases, one may either was one's anus with water or wipe it with some fabric or a stone.
The urinary orifice can be cleaned off only with water, and it is enough to wash it just one time after urinating. But those in whom the urine comes out through some other orifice would do better to wash that orifice at least twice. This must be observed by women as well.
It is not necessary to wipe one's anus with three stones or with three pieces of fabric: a single stone or single piece of fabric is enough. But if one wipes with a bone, or any sacred object, such as, for example, a paper having the name of Allah on it, one may not say his prayers while in this state.
It is preferable, for urinating or defecating, to squat down in an isolated place; it is also preferable to go into this place with the left foot first, and come out of it with the right foot first; it is recommended that one keep his head covered while evacuating, and have the weight of his body carried by the left foot.
During evacuation, one must not squat facing the sun or the moon, unless one's genitals are covered. While defecating, one must also avoid squatting exposed to the wind, or in public places, or at the door one's house, or under a fruit tree. At the time of the evacuation, one must also avoid eating, dallying, or washing one's anus with the right hand. Finally, one must avoid talking, unless one is absolutely forced to or is addressing a prayer to Allah.
It is better to avoid urinating standing up or urinating into hard ground, or into an animal hole, or into ware, especially stagnant water.
It is recommended not to hold back the need to urinate or defecate, especially if it hurts.
It is recommended to urinate before prayers, before going to bed, before having sexual intercourse, and after ejaculating.
After urination, one must first wash the anus if it has been soiled by urine; then one must press three times with the middle finger of his left hand on the part between the anus and the base of the penis; then one must put his thumb on top of the penis and his index finger on the bottom and pull the skin forward three times as far as the circumcision ring; and after that three times squeeze the tip of the penis.
A woman has no special instructions to follow after urinating; if she afterward notes some moisture at the vaginal orifice which she cannot judge as pure or impure, the said moisture remains pure and in no way stands in the way of her performing ablutions or praying.